Researchers create an electromagnetic black hole the size of a salad plate!
A collection of meta-material rings efficiently absorbs microwave radiation the way black holes gobble up matter and light and an optical-light analogue may not be far behind.
By John Matson
RING OF NO RETURN: A cylinder made of metamaterial rings effectively swallows electromagnetic radiation directed toward it in the same plane. Q. CHENG AND T. J. CUI Two researchers say they have built a cylinder that acts as an ersatz electromagnetic black hole, soaking up radiation in the microwave regime like the astrophysical version sucks up matter and light. Qiang Cheng and Tie Jun Cui of the State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Wavesa paper posted to the online physics preprint Web site arXiv.org last week. at Southeast University in Nanjing, China, detailed their creation in
Cheng and Cui report engineering a thin cylinder 21.6 centimeters in diameter comprising 60 concentric rings of so-called metamaterials—composite structures specifically crafted to possess unique light-bending capabilities. Unlike ordinary magnifying glasses, lenses made from metamaterials can have a negative index of refraction, meaning that refracted light bends to the same side of the “normal,” the imaginary line perpendicular to the surface of the lens, as does the incident light. In the past few years, research groups around the world have harnessed metamaterials to create “superlenses” as well as for so-called invisibility cloaking, in which light is bent around an object as if it were not there.
The laboratory black hole is based on a similar approach—establishing a graded index of refraction to bend electromagnetic radiation inward to the cylinder’s core. The core, in turn, is an efficient absorber of electromagnetic radiation. In one possible application, the core would be replaced with a “payload” such as a solar cell, with the outer layers funneling light inward. But Cui cautions that such an implementation is a long way off, requiring both that the device be modified to work at visible wavelengths and that the two-dimensional ring be extended to three dimensions.
Cheng and Cui’s work represents the preliminary realization of a theoretical proposal put forth just this year by Evgenii Narimanov and Alex Kildishev of Purdue University for a metamaterial structure that could absorb incident light from all directions. Narimanov, a professor of electrical and computer engineering, says that in the wake of his work with Kildishev, as well as the many studies into extreme light manipulation with metamaterials, he is not surprised to see the theoretical made real.
“It’s impressive, though, how quickly they have done it,” he says. John Pendry, a physicist at Imperial College London who was among the first to harness the unusual properties of metamaterials, says the new research “constitutes an entirely novel way of constructing an absorber, but at the same time keeping control of the absorbed radiation.
” Nevertheless, Pendry notes, the analogy to black holes is imperfect. “Black holes absorb incident radiation and other objects, but the key point about real black holes is the prediction of Hawking radiation emitted by the black hole,” he says, referring to physicist Stephen Hawking’s hypothesis that is rooted both in general relativity and quantum mechanics.
Were it observed, Hawking radiation would provide critical insight into the complicated boundary of the two theories. “A real black hole powers the radiation through its gravitational energy,” Pendry says, “but the device reported in this paper has no internal source of energy and therefore cannot emit Hawking radiation.” Besides, the metamaterial black hole is not as ruthlessly voracious as the gravitational kind.
Cui estimates that the demonstration black hole only absorbs 80 percent of the microwaves that hit it but that increasing the frequency of the incident light—to visible wavelengths, for instance—will increase absorption. Such an artificial black hole for optical light is in the works and might even be developed by the end of the year, Cui says—a prediction that may raise a few eyebrows in the field. “I think that the authors are rather optimistic in projecting into the visible region,” Pendry says. “But I would be very happy to be proved wrong.” ________________________________________________________________________ October 19, 2006 | 1 comments
Invisibility Cloak Sees Light of Day
By JR Minkel
NOW YOU SEE IT: Rings of so-called meta-material are designed to make the enclosed space invisible to microwaves. Mere months after making headlines for proposing a technologically feasible way of rendering objects invisible, a research team has demonstrated a rudimentary example of an invisibility cloak.
Concentric rings of so-called metamaterial caused microwaves to partially bend around an enclosed object like a water flows around a stone, the group reports. A metamaterial is a composite structure, built of metal rings and wires embedded in fiberglass, that makes light behave in weird ways.
Meta-materials can be used, for example, to bend light sharply or to focus it to a higher resolution than is normally possible. More recently, researchers poin
ted out that the technology should make it possible to construct spheres or cylinders capable of cloaking an object almost perfectly from detection by a single wavelength of light. When light strikes a metamaterial it causes the electrons in the metal pieces to vibrate; these vibrations in turn affect the speed of the light. A metamaterial shell with the right gradient of metal elements should cause light of a particular wavelength to wrap around the shell’s interior.
Engineers David Schurig and David Smith of Duke University say they were concealing something themselves last May when they and their colleagues reported their proposal: “We had a cloak we liked pretty well in May, and it got better from there,” Schurig reveals.
In the group’s current version a central copper ring–the object to be cloaked–is surrounded by concentric rings of metamaterial standing one centimeter tall and spanning 12 centimeters. The rings are sandwiched between two plates so that microwaves can only travel through the cloak in the plane of the rings, as described in a paper published online October 19 by Science. When the microwaves strike the shell they interact with its C-shaped copper wires and, theoretically, should be absorbed and reflected less by the enclosed object than if the shell wasn’t there.
The researchers sampled the electric field component of the microwaves at many points in the apparatus to see how the radiation was affected, and the results match well with their simulations, they report. “We don’t say anything quantitatively about how well this is cloaking, but we’ve reduced both the reflection and the shadow generated by the object, and those are the two essential features of the invisibility cloaking,” Schurig says.
“Although this prototype is not an ideal invisibility device, it’s definitely a very important breakthrough,” says optics theorist Ulf Leonhardt of the University of St. Andrews College in Scotland, who was not part of the research. “It worked surprisingly well.” Getting the technology up and running was easier than they anticipated, Schurig and Smith say, but add that creating a spherical shell or cloaking shorter wavelengths of light, such as the visible spectrum, are likely to be very challenging tasks.
Making things invisible is a pretty neat trick. In 2006, a team of Duke University scientists bent rays of light around a copper ring (which was still visible, thanks to pesky visible light). Now researchers say they are getting close to bending visible light, too, but along the way they’ve uncovered a rather odd real-world application for the technology: protecting against the power of the sea.
The model you see above is a prototype 10 centimeters across, representative of how the technology would work. Developed at the Fresnel Institute in Marseille, France, the pillars placed along the protective ring form a static maze of sorts that water won’t fully penetrate. As water enters the concentric circles of pillars, it’ll interact in such a way that the force drives the liquid around in a whirlpool-like motion, moving around the interior of the ring faster and faster — rather than through it. Water will be trapped inside and thrown out — mostly to the south — and will pass by whatever is in the center as if it wasn’t there.
Depending on the size of the barrier ring employed, a system such as this could protect anything from nature’s wrath, such as offshore oil rigs. Larger areas needing protection, such as islands and coastlines, would take a far larger network — maybe even several artificial barrier islands employing the technology.
CORRECTION: The water barrier rings do not actually spin, as previously published. Thanks, RampantGnome.
Invisibility cloaks could take sting out of tsunamis
12:31 29 September 2008 by Colin Barras
Click image to enlarge
Invisibility cloaks that are able to steer light around two dimensional objects have become reality in the last few years. But the first real-world application of the theories that made them possible could be in hiding vulnerable coastlines and offshore platforms from destructive tsunamis.
The first working invisibility cloak, built in 2006, guided microwaves around a small, flat copper ring as if it wasn’t there. By October 2007, a device repeated the trick for harder-to-handle visible light, and some progress is reported on the yet more complex task of making cloaks to hide 3D objects.
Now Stefan Enoch at the Fresnel Institute in Marseille, France, says that established cloaking principles could be applied to ocean waves, which are essentially two-dimensional.
Such techniques could be used to render vulnerable coastlines or offshore platforms invisible to damaging waves, he says.
To prove it, the researchers have built a prototype 10 centimetres across (see image, right) for testing in a wave tank. Concentric rings of rigid pillars form a labyrinth of radial and concentric corridors.
It may look like waves could pass easily along the radial corridors to the cloak’s centre. But they interact with the pillars, producing forces that pull water along the concentric corridors instead.
“Basically, the cloak behaves like a whirlpool,” says Sebastian Guenneau at the University of Liverpool, UK, and a member of
Enoch’s team. “The further you go into the whirlpool, the faster you rotate.”
The spinning rate increases close to the cloak’s centre where the concentric corridors are narrower, making the forces greater, he explains.
As the water whizzes around the cloak, the waves are flung out again along the radial corridors. “If you imagine water entering the cloak from the north, some leaves the cloak to the east, and some leaves to the west, but most is thrown out at the south,” says Guenneau.
The waves exiting the cloak travel as if they have not been disturbed at all, he says.
In 1923 Townsend T. Brown’s simple flying discs demonstrated a connection between electricity and gravitation. Working along these lines for twenty-eight- more years, Brown patented (U.S. Patents 2,949,550, 3,018,394 and others) an electrostatic propulsion method. Starting with two-feet-in-diameter suspended discs flying around a pole at seventeen feet per second, he increased the size by a third, and the discs flew so fast that the results were highly classified, said an international aviation magazine in 1956. Before the end of his life Brown had apparatus that could lift itself directly when electricity was applied. He died in 1985.
The bottom line: if electrogravitics is developed, we could have an electric spacecraft technology which does not obey known electromagnetic principles. The craft would thrust in any direction, without moving engine parts. No gears, shafts, propellers or wheels.
Coupling effects between electricity or magnetism and gravity are shown by other experimenters, including David Hamel of Ontario and Floyd Sparky Sweet of California. At a 1981 symposium in Toronto, Rudolf Zinsser of Germany demonstrated a device (U.S. Patent 4,085,384) that propelled itself, according to credible witnesses such as professional engineer George Hathaway. Zinsser claimed his specifically shaped pulses of electromagnetic waves altered the local gravitational field.
Hathaway collaborated in the mid-1980s with John Hutchison on action-at-a-distance experiments in which heavy pieces of metal levitated and shot toward the ceiling when put in a complex electromagnetic field, and some metal samples shredded anomalously. Visitors to the laboratory came from Los Alamos and the Canadian department of defense. (The military is a quantum leap ahead of the academics in spooky science.)
Read the first issue of Atlantis Rising for a fascinating antigravity story, John Searle’s levity disk generator.
Bio nano machines not built by humans
Tiny machines not designed or built by man.
Tiny Machines not necessarily designed or built by God?
Welding with water
Have you ever cut steel without a plasma torch, just water?
How about cutting metals three times faster with no pollution, that is created by propane or acetylene gas, & Drinking Water is the by products.
And get this. The average temperature of the torch is between 260 to 279 degrees!
Can you imagine light that is artificially slowed down, that you can study a piece (photon) of it?
FROZEN LIGHT: A cool research holds promise
ScienceDaily (May 22, 2003) – NASA-funded research at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., that literally stops light in its tracks, may someday lead to breakneck-speed computers that shelter enormous amounts of data from hackers.
The research, conducted by a team led by Dr. Lene Hau, a Harvard physics professor, is one of 12 research projects featured in a special edition of Scientific American entitled “The Edge of Physics,” available through May 31.
In their laboratory, Hau and her colleagues have been able to slow a pulse of light, and even stop it, for several-thousandths of a second. They’ve also created a roadblock for light, where they can shorten a light pulse by factors of a billion.
“This could open up a whole new way to use light, doing things we could only imagine before,” Hau said. “Until now, many technologies have been limited by the speed at which light travels.”
The speed of light is approximately 300,000 kilometers per second (about 186,000 miles per second or 670 million miles per hour). Some substances, like water and diamonds, can slow light to a limited extent. More drastic techniques are needed to dramatically reduce the speed of light. Hau’s team accomplished “light magic” by laser-cooling a cigar-shaped cloud of s
odium atoms to one-billionth of a degree above absolute zero, the point where scientists believe no further cooling can occur. Using a powerful electromagnet, the researchers suspended the cloud in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, until it formed a frigid, swamp-like goop of atoms.
When they shot a light pulse into the cloud, it bogged down, slowed dramatically, eventually stopped, and turned off. The scientists later revived the light pulse and restored its normal speed by shooting an additional laser beam into the cloud.
Hau’s cold-atom research began in the mid-1990s, when she put ultra-cold atoms in such cramped quarters they formed a type of matter called a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this state, atoms behave oddly, and traditional laws of physics do not apply. Instead of bouncing off each other like bumper cars, the atoms join together and function as one entity.
The first slow-light breakthrough for Hau and her colleagues came in March 1998. Later that summer, they successfully slowed a light beam to 38 miles per hour, the speed of suburban traffic. That’s 2 million times slower than the speed of light in free space. By tinkering with the system, Hau and her team made light stop completely in the summer of 2000.
What does this mean? Stick around and expand your mind.
What is stronger enough to hold up a brick and heat resistant to a torch that it keeps crayons from melting???
Answer: Almost Nothing.
Frozen smoke is made from silicon dioxide, the same material as ordinary glass only 1,000 times less dense.
Aerogel (also called ‘frozen smoke’ because of its hazy blue appearance), is a truly remarkable material.
It is the lightest and lowest-density solid known to exist, and holds an unbelievable 15 entries in the Guinness Book of World Records, including best insulator and lowest density solid.
Aerogel is composed of 99.8% air and is chemically similar to ordinary glass.
Being the world’s lightest known solid, it weighs only three times that of air.
When handled, Aerogel feels like a very light, hard foam. Being chemically similar to glass, it also happens to shatter like glass, yet is incredibly strong structurally, and can support thousands of times its own weight. Theoretically, a block weighing less than a pound could support a weight of half a ton.
Due to its microstructure, Aerogel is a powerful desiccant, rapidly absorbing any moisture in your fingertips when held. This usually leaves some dry spots on the skin that disappear in a short time.
Aerogel’s true strength is its incredible insulating properties. It negates just about any kind of energy transfer – thermal, electrical or acoustic. A one-inch thick Aerogel window has the same insulation value as 15 panes of glass and trapped air – which means a conventional window would have to be ten-inches thick to equal a one-inch thick Aerogel window.
Aerogel’s density is just 3 milligrams per cubic centimeter.
Its melting point is 2,200 degrees F (1,200 degrees C).
A large panel of Aerogel was most recently used by NASA in the Stardust mission, which successfully collected collect comet & interstellar dust samples & returned them to Earth. Previously, it was used in the Mars Pathfinder Rover to insulate its components from the large temperature swings on Mars.
Almost nothing, 99% air!
Creating steam in seconds by smashing water
Imagine creating hot water or steam by smashing water and getting 70% over unity, (to get 70% more energy out then is put in)!
Just take a look:
Ice that burns white hot but doesn’t melt!
Watch the ice heat up and burn off hydrogen, without melting…incredible!
And they are only using an induction field to heat it up, the same technology used for space age cook tops. See for yourself:
It is not a myth or make believe. It is not science fiction. The great pyramids of Egypt can be reproduced today and this can be done with a hand full of men and minimal equipment! A small sample below:
Remember science as it is practiced today in the world is a BUSINESS!
Being a business, science can not afford to be scientific and free thinking. This is a profit based culture! In a profit based culture, all final conclusions, analysis, discoveries, etc., must make a profit for the company that science is employed in.
Great discoveries take a back seat to the bottom line. Free thinking, empirical science can not be allowed to be practiced since it is not economical.
Example: Which research makes more money? How to find ways to continue the use of oil, or find an alternative safer, less polluting fuel source, like water? YOU CAN NOT MAKE MONEY USING WATER, but over a hundred years ago the first cars ran on steam. REAL SCIENCE.
If the truth can not produce money or endangers the accepted profitable scientific model of today, then no scientist will be allowed to publish their findings, even if it is the truth.
Science does not believe that a room temperature nuclear reaction, or Cold Fusion, can be maintained. Yet, the U.S. Navy has been working on this clean and abundant energy source for years. The real surprise is that The Navy is showing results. And why not!? A couple of scientist, 20 years ago, did this practically in their homes!
This news video was aired in 2005.
So we have all these brilliant scientists out there that do not believe in the positive results of the U.S. Navy Cold Fusion research and experiments. That is amazing or perhaps the following video is amazing. We let the viewers of the next video make their own judgments. Kids don’t try this at home; enjoy!